What are certificates?

what are certificates of depositWhat is a certificate? Certificates are used for security and identification, but how do they work?

This video looks at what is a certificate and how they are used to secure communication and prove identity. First of all, what is a certificate?

A certificate is simply a file or an electronic document that contains data fields. If I were to compare a digital certificate with a traditional physical document, you would notice some similarities.
As shown in the regular certificate, you can see who has issued the certificate, in this case, ITFreeTraining. If you had a certificate from an organization as a University the certificate would have this printed on it so you know who issued it.
An electronic certificate is issued from an Authority as well. By looking at the data inside the certificate it can easily be determined which Authority it was issued from.

The next question is would you trust this authority. By doing a quick search on the internet, you will find many web sites that will take your money and give you a certificate showing you have a PHD. An employer should not trust these certificates. If an employer was given a certificate that came from an educational institution like Harvard University,

they would have good reason to trust this certificate. This is because in order for a person to obtain a certificate from Harvard University they would have need to complete all the necessary steps in order to achieve this. Electronic certificates work off the same principal of trust.

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Do you trust the person that issued the digital certificate like you would a physical certificate? If a certificate said that it was issued by Microsoft would you trust this certificate?
If a certificate came from a web site you had never heard of before, would you be so quick to trust it? As we will see later in the video,

certificates use a trust model in order for the end user to know where the certificate has come from and whether it is genuine or not. The next point of interest is whom the certificate was issued to. The certificate shown here was issued to John Doe.

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Like a physical certificate, an electronic certificate is issued to someone or something. For example, an electronic certificate could be issued to a user, computer, device or webpage.
By using this information, the electronic certificate can be checked to see if the user, computer, device or web page should be using that certificate. Just like a physical certificate, the name on the certificate can be checked to make sure that the person using it is the same person.


If the name does not match, this means that someone is using a certificate they are not supposed to be and thus the certificate is rejected. Some physical certificates have expiry dates. For example, certain IT Certifications will expire after a certain date unless you pass additional exams. In this case,


The example physical certificate has an expiry date. Electronic certificates also have an expiry date associated with them. Once this date is reached the certificate can no longer be used. A common piece of data contained in an electronic certificate that is not contained in a physical certificate is the public key.

The public key allows data to be encrypted that can only be decrypted using the private key.

For example, if you had a certificate from Microsoft.com, you could use this certificate to encrypt data so that only people at Microsoft could decrypt it.

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The next part of the electronic certificate is the digital signature. This is like the wax seal on a physical certificate. Just like the wax seal, the digital signature proves the certificate came from a trusted source and is not a fake. The digital signature also provides an additional feature install root certificate windows 10  in that it This is only some of the data that is contained in a certificate.

Other data also exists like the algorithms and key sizes used. To understand how certificates work, it helps to have a closer look at the digital signature in the certificate. The first point to understand with a digital signature is the hash value.

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The hash value is a value that represents has been added to the certificate; it can be used later to check that the certificate has not been altered or damaged. When the certificate is downloaded to a client computer, the client computer checks the name on the certificate to see if it matches the website that they are trying to access.

If it does the certificate will be used. You can see that if another web site also obtained this certificate and attempted to use it,

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The certificate would be rejected as the name in the certificate and web site do not match. Remember that a certificate is essentially a file with data in it, so it is an easy process to change the name in the certificate. Would you trust this certificate?

Certificates work off a trust model. Windows 8 internet explorer 11 security certificate  will work on t use the same type of trust model. At the top, you have a certificate authority.

In this example, I will use the Certificate computers, devices and web pages. Let’s say ITFreeTraining wants to get a certificate for their web page. To do this they obtain a certificate from VeriSign which would allow a visitor to the ITFreeTraining web site to use encryption like SSL. Before VeriSign would issue a certificate to ITFreeTraining a number of checks are performed.


These checks include checking who registered the domain name and a number of checks on the business. This helps prevent certificates being issued to individuals find security certificates on computer who want to use the certificates the certificate from VeriSign,

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Have been performed before the certificate was issued. It is possible for a certificate to be issued to a company that is doing the wrong thing, but at least you can be assured that some checks have been performed to determine that they are the ITFreeTraining web site and obtains the certificate? By default, some certificates are installed on the client computer when the operating system is installed. These include a VeriSign certificate. Since the certificate is installed locally in the OS,


The OS will trust any certificates issued by VeriSign. When the certificate is downloaded from ITFreeTraining, the digital signature is used in the certificate to determine the number of different things. First that the certificate has not been tampered with and the website matches the website in the certificate.

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Using the local certificate installed in the OS,

Windows can check the certificate obtained from ITFreeTraining to see if it is, in fact, a VeriSign certificate.

You can start to see how the certificate trust model works. The computer must trust the Certificate Authority that the certificate came from just like you would trust an organization like Harvard University. If you were given a certificate with the Harvard University logo on it, would you trust it? Also, consider that if you were an employer6% cd rates fdic insured that had never heard of Harvard University,


Would you trust a certificate from an educational institution that you had not heard of before? Certificates work the same way; you need to trust who issued the certificate to start using it. When you are surfing on the internet, you may be presented with the following screen. This is essentially telling you that you visited a website that Windows does not trust. This essentially means no certificate is installed locally on the computer or the site has not been placed on an exception list.

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Certificates from this source. In this case, the user can take the risk and accept the certificate and hope for the best or not open the website. All though certificate authorities like VerSign are trusted by Windows by default, you may want to use your own Certificate Authority. Besides having complete control over the certificate Authority,how do certificates of deposit work certificates from companies like VerSign do cost money.


At the top you will have the root CA. The root CA will issue certificates to subordinate or 2nd level certificate authorities.

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